The final report of the Eastern Slopes Grizzly Bear Project. 2003. 2012). Murphy, K.M., G.S. Final Report. and T. Merrill. As such, this calculation is based on average or best-case scenarios, estimated from data collected through various methods, and therefore it should not be considered accurate or representative of any one individual population, but rather a general approximation based on information on hand. Otherwise, populations in the lower 48 United States are generally small and fragmented (estimated to number in total approximately 1,200–1,400 bears; USFWS 2011). 1997; 1998). Gillingham. Abundance and density of Central Purcell, South Purcell, Yahk, and South Selkirk Grizzly Bear Population Units in southeast British Columbia. Park Science 27. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Room 200 - 2nd Floor 4999 - 98 Avenue Edmonton AB T6B 2X3. 2001. The coloration of the Brown or Barren Ground Bear is so variable as at times to be a dirty yellowish brown to a dark grizzly...this animal is extremely savage, rushing up on its foe with a ferocity characterized by no other species of Bear.”. 2012). Journal of Wildlife Research 1:245–250. 2002b). 1998. 1989. Estimated reproductive parameters of Grizzly Bears in and adjacent to Canada. Moss, K.A. B.C. Ciarniello, R.M.R. Whitehorse, Yukon: Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope). Bear Res. 1989. Food habits, body condition, and habitat of the barren-ground grizzly bear. Canadian Wildlife Service, Suite 301, 5204 - 50th Ave., Yellowknife NT X1A 1E2. In many instances, the guard hairs on the shoulders and back are tipped with white, grey, or silver, which gives the fur a ‘grizzled’ appearance. Jr., M.B. In Yellowstone, males reached mean adult size in seven of eleven dimensions by 6 years, and all eleven by 9 years (Blanchard 1987). Grizzly Bear hunting in most of the Mackenzie Mountains is available only to NT residents, and there is a lifetime bag limit of one bear for non-residents. For example, it is expected to exacerbate fragmentation (Fleishman and MacNalley 2007) and negatively influence salmon runs in coastal BC (Horejsi et al. When this population was lost is unknown, but Loring and Spiess (2007) suggest that some older Innu hunters may still be familiar with the word matashu as a large, dangerous, yellow-brown bear that figures in Innu oral histories and legends (Lefebvre 1972; Savard 1985, 2004). Canadian Journal of Zoology 78:1640-1645. In some areas they are effective predators of ungulates such as Moose, Elk, and Caribou; Pacific-coastal bears feed heavily on spawning salmon, and arctic Grizzly Bears scavenge along shorelines where they may feed on whale and seal carcasses, or even hunt seals. Gibeau, Mike. 2314. Barnes, Jr., and R.B. Revelstoke, Kootenay, and Glacier). [Zoologische Garten, 1877:135-136. Suspected percent reduction in total number of mature individuals over the next 10 years, or 3 generations. Cronin, M.A., S.C. Amstrup, G.W. Mowat, G. and C. Strobeck. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 1378-1391. 62 pp. 1989), and are important Moose predators in other areas as well (e.g., Gasaway et al. In some mountainous areas, bears undergo annual altitudinal migrations in response to seasonal changes in vegetation phenology and the availability of other foods (LeFranc et al. 2002; Munro et al. 2011. Slocombe. Wildlife Research Series No. (2007), Environment Canada (2009), and ASRDACA (2010), although most of these depict coarse-scale “best guess” demarcations on maps based on sightings, mortality events, and/or perceived habitats with little to no confirmation of occupancy of these habitats over time. ... grizzly bears at different map scales (Fuhr and Demarchi 1990). Black bear are the most timid and least dangerous of the bears found in North America. Proctor, M. F. 2003. COSEWIC Secretariatc/o Canadian Wildlife ServiceEnvironment CanadaOttawa, ONK1A 0H3, Tel. Ross, unpubl. This warming may improve bear habitat in the north and allow the species to expand its range, for example into the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (although evidence of recent expansion of Grizzly Bear range into northern NT, Nunavut, and Manitoba, has yet to be quantitatively tied to climate change). 2006. Hornocker, and T.K. A. Chapman (eds), Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation, pp. Common names of North American variants, such as ‘Kodiak Bear’, ‘Alaskan Brown Bear’, and ‘Barren-ground Grizzly Bear’ are used to describe the species regionally. For most polar bears, seals are the main part of their diet. They will try to avoid humans as much as humans try to avoid them. Stenhouse. The majority of the reported Grizzly Bear harvest in the NT comes from Aboriginal subsistence hunting in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and the Gwich’in Settlement Area. 1996b. Black, L.T. The ecology of barren-ground grizzly bears in Nunavut. 2010). Roever, C., M.S. Genetic distances across developed valleys and major highways were elevated relative to those in undeveloped regions in central and northern BC (Proctor et al. Community-based fish and wildlife management plan (2002-2007) for Nacho Nyak Dun Traditional Territory. Box 31539, Whitehorse YK Y1A 6K8. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 2011. Genetic isolation of Grizzly Bears in areas where anthropogenic mortality is high is not as great or immediate a concern as interruption of demographic processes. 2011. Importance of salmon to wildlife: Implications for integrated management. Munro, R.H.M., S.E., Nielsen, M.H. Boyce, C.C. 1999b; Ferguson and McLoughlin 2000). Annual mean rates of kill in response to conflicts with humans for the past decade were, as a proportion of total known kill, 21.7% in Alberta, 14.7% in BC, at least 12.7% in Yukon, 30.0% for the NT including the Gwich’in and Inuvialuit Settlement Areas (data provided by R. Mulders, Government of the NT), and 29.2% for Nunavut. In early summer, when caribou were essentially absent from the region, horsetails, sedges (Carex spp.) Confronted only with risks due to natural mortality, adult Grizzly Bear survival is generally high (above 90% per year), with natural rates of cub and yearling survival being lower. Garshelis, D.L., M.L. Yukon’s grizzly mortality data also indicate that there are numerous places where human-caused mortality is unsustainable, with up to 18% of the territory possibly falling into this category (R. Maraj, unpublished data). 2005; Nielsen et al. 1991. Inuuvik Community Corporation, Tuktuuyaqtuuq Community Corporation and Akłarvik Community Corporation. Intergeneric crossbreed of the brown bear Ursus arctos L., and the polar bear Thalarctos maritimus (Phipps). The Grizzly Bear was not known to exist in the hot desert regions of the continent (Mattson and Merrill 2002). Low site fidelity and home range drift in a wide-ranging, large Arctic omnivore. Grizzly bears have one of the lowest known reproductive rates of all North American land mammals. Where multiple numbers are within a subpopulation (dotted polygon), estimates are for separate jurisdictions delineated by a light solid line (i.e., provincial, international boundaries, or the limit of a survey effort). [cited in COSEWIC 2002]). Foothills Model Forest. Data Deficient (DD)***A category that applies when the available information is insufficient (a) to resolve a species’ eligibility for assessment or (b) to permit an assessment of the species’ risk of extinction. This estimate has not been updated, although harvest and other mortality data indicate that there may be regional population declines. In the Low Arctic of NT and Nunavut, a subadult male moved 471 km in less than one month (R. Gau, pers. Slater G.J., B. Figueirido, L. Louis, P. Yang, and B. Carnivore Biologist, Government of Nunavut. Également disponible sen français sous le titre Évaluation et Rapport de situation du, Moderate (Possibly in the short term, < 10, Individual mines would be expected not to have as significant an impact as energy development, given the relative isolation of the mine sites where hunting is managed and can even attract bears. Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board. and cotton grass (Eriophorum spp.) Journal of Applied Ecology 25:451-460. Forest insect pests (all of which are native species) and Black Bear competitors, Habitat changes as a result of climate change are unknown and could go in both directions depending on geography within range, Species at Risk Act: COSEWIC assessments and status reports, Overview of Direct Human-Caused Mortality, Acknowledgements and Authorities Contacted, Biographical Summary of the Report Writer. Landscape partitioning and spatial inferences of competition between black and grizzly bears. A portion regarding the distribution of the bear in the Ungava region is reprinted from Loring and Spiess (2007): “A species of Bear supposed to be the Barren Ground Bear is well known to inhabit the sparsely timbered tracts along George’s River [George River] from within thirty miles of its mouth to the headwaters. Seismic cutlines, changing landscape metrics and grizzly bear landscape use in Alberta. Denning characteristics of brown bears on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Grizzlies in Canada are found in the Arctic tundra, in sub-alpine meadows, in dense forests, and closer to the Pacific, around inlets and salmon spawning grounds. Foothills Institute. Barclay. 1 Ignores ‘half-years’; e.g., ages reported as 6.5 were considered to be 6 years old.2 Cubs of the year.3 Includes some litters that died.4 Case and Buckland (1998) present a subset of data from the larger study area of McLoughlin et al. Grizzly bear conservation in the Yellowstone to Yukon region. August 2010. 1996. In BC, guided outfitting operations with a Grizzly Bear-hunt component generate about $2.6–3.3 million per year (Province of British Columbia 1995; Parker and Gorter 2003). 2002. The lack of genetic sampling from large portions of Grizzly Bear range (e.g., northern Pacific coast, Arctic, Prairie, and Ungava) preclude any resolution of taxonomic uncertainty at the subspecies level at this time. Table 4. Black Bear and Grizzly Bear Characteristics in Yellowstone. Density-dependent population regulation in black, brown, and polar bears. 1999; Mowat & Heard 2006). 1991. Most grizzlies are a medium brown color, but they can range from a very dark brown (almost black) to a light honey brown color. Relationships among grizzly bears, highways, and habitat in the Banff-Bow Valley, Alberta, Canada. For example, in Alberta 4.9% of known reported human-caused mortalities for Grizzly Bears from 2000–2009 were the result of hunter inability to properly identify their target, almost as many deaths as by accidental collision. South of 55 degrees it is not known to occur that I have any trustworthy information of. A population study was recently completed across the southwestern lobe of Grizzly Bear range, as defined by the southern Coast Ranges (Apps et al. Robbins, and L.A. Shipley. Grizzly Bears are omnivores with adaptations to digging and rooting, grazing, and hunting. The Western population occupies an estimated area of 2.98 × 106 km². COSEWIC comprises members from each provincial and territorial government wildlife agency, four federal entities (Canadian Wildlife Service, Parks Canada Agency, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Federal Biodiversity Information Partnership, chaired by the Canadian Museum of Nature), three non-government science members and the co-chairs of the species specialist subcommittees and the Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge subcommittee. The species was also known to experienced Hudson Bay Company traders working in the area during the 19th century who compiled inventories for the district of “Black, Brown, Grisly, and Polar Bears” (e.g., John Maclean cited in Elton 1954). Grizzly bear movements relative to roads: application of step selection functions. 2000). Biological Conservation 93:145-154. Important, given importance of salmon in particular to coastal populations. Version 1.2. Grizzly bear demographics in and around Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country, Alberta. AEC Report V88-R1. 2000. 2012). Table 3. Kasworm, C. Servheen, C. L. Lausen, M. L. Gibeau, W.L. 2000. August 2010. Clarkson, P.L. Provincial Wildlife Status Biologist, Dept. Generally they are called grizzly bear when they are inland. Habitat associationsare strongly seasonal and typically reflect regional plant phenology, timing of spring ungulate calving and runs of migratory fish (where available) (Schwartz et al. Public attitudes towards bears: implications to the management of black and grizzly bears in the Yukon. Wielgus, R.B. 35 pp. However, anthropogenic mortality has important influences on area of occupancy and underlies functional habitat loss throughout much of the species’ range. Resource selection by female grizzly bears with consideration to heterogeneous landscape pattern and scale. Wolves (Canis lupus) and Grizzly Bears compete for live prey and for carcasses, and usurp kills from each other. The species is listed in Appendix II of CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), although populations in Bhutan, China, Mongolia, and Mexico are listed in Appendix I. NatureServe provides a rounded global status rank for Brown Bears as G4 – Apparently Secure, even though its S-rank is SX - Extirpated in 16 of 26 North American states, provinces and territories where it occurred historically (NatureServe 2011). A number of well-studied populations for which DNA-derived estimates have been derived in Alberta and southern British Columbia are small and/or in decline where their ranges are heavily fragmented by human settlement, intensive resource development and roads. In that area, Grizzly Bears killed four times more animal biomass than they scavenged. (306) 966-4451; fax (306) 966-4461EmailLab website. Gibeau. While the Prairie population of Grizzly bears is locally extinct in Alberta, according to Parks Canada there are around 20,000 Grizzlies in western Alberta, the Yukon, Northwest Territories and British Columbia. Is rescue from outside populations likely? As detailed throughout this report, geographic variation in body size, life history parameters, and food habits are evident across certain parts of Grizzly Bear range. 1998. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. In the absence of human interference, the density of a Grizzly Bear population is largely determined by habitat productivity, including abundance and seasonality of food (Ferguson and McLoughlin 2000; McLoughlin et al. Carr, H.D. 1991. Journal of Wildlife Management 69: 1592–1600. The Grizzly Bear population in Alberta was recently listed as Threatened under Alberta’s Wildlife Act (June 2010), which resulted in a ban on licensed hunting of the species in that province. Older adult male bears sire a disproportionate number of cubs compared to their representation in the population. McLellan. Hamilton, A.N. In BC, it is illegal to kill a bear <2 years old, or any bear in its company (usually its mother). Box 2703, Whitehorse YT Y1A 2C6. Updated status report on the grizzly bear Ursus arctos horribilis in Canada. 2004) indicate that most people feel enriched from observations of bears, or even from knowing they exist. comm. For example, the Stein-Nahatlatch population is an isolated island of ~23 individuals and has lower genetic variability than any other mainland population in North America. 2000. Box 134, Tulita NT X0E 0K0. American Anthropologist 28:1-175. From early August to mid-October, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Ho, S.C.Bray, M. Korsten, E. Tammeleht, M. Hindrikson, K. Østbye, E. Østbye, S-E. Lauritzen, J. Austin, A. Cooper, and U. Saarma. Talbot, S.L., and G.F. Shields. Rode, K.D., C.T. W. Stendell and E. von Martens, tom. Senior Large Carnivore Biologist, Ministry of Environment, Government of British Columbia. Ecological studies of grizzly bears in the Arctic Mountains, Northern Yukon Territory, 1972 to 1975. Population condition ranged from relatively secure units with >500 bears to several small units of <100 bears. Grizzly Bears have not been listed under SARA. McLoughlin, P.D., Ferguson, S.H., and Messier, F. 2000. Roever, C., M.S. 2005). Moreover, the recovery of at least some southern Grizzly Bear populations in largely forested landscapes may be limited in part by the influence of Black Bear densities on dispersed plant foods (Apps et al. 3 pp. The coastal brown bears are generally larger than their inland grizzly bear counterpart. Edwards et al. Population characteristics of grizzly bears and black bears in west central Alberta. Reduction in habitat use by Grizzly Bears can extend over a land area much larger than that occupied by the development itself. Physiology of hibernation in bears. Male Grizzly Bears reach maturity at 3.5–5.5 years of age (White et al. Increasing incidence of berry crop failures and other seasonal foods, competition between Black Bears and Grizzly Bears as tree lines move further north and higher in altitude, decreasing den stability with the changing nature of permafrost, and effects on prey species such as Caribou and Moose, and increasing intensity in human development as activity in the Northwest Passage increases or as parts of the North become more amenable to agriculture and other activities, are all potential concerns for Grizzly Bears. Guo, and G. Stenhouse. 2000. Case, R. and J. Stevenson. Are there extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence? 2007. Paquet, and L.F. Ruggiero. 1993. 2009. For example, in the Yukon North Slope portion of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, people hunt Grizzly Bears in the spring when their hides are worth the most (Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope) and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee 2008).In the late 1980s, Aklavik Inuvialuit became concerned that the harvest of Grizzly Bears on parts of their lands was too high, undermining productivity and the long-term abundance of Grizzly Bears. 2006). 2007; Rockwell et al. Simon Fraser University. 81 pp. 2006. In Yukon, the mean mortality rates of Grizzly Bear over the past 25 years has exceeded 2% (and as high as 16%) in an area covering about 18% of the territory (Government of Yukon, unpublished data). Paetkau, David. Estimating population size of grizzly bears using hair capture, DNA profiling, and mark-recapture analysis. Box 9358 - Station Prov Govt, Victoria BC V8W 9M2. Boyce. Millikin, L. Rhonda. Festa-Bianchet, Marco. B.M. Bertram, M.R. For example, Grizzly Bears have been most recently documented on northern Banks Island (Slavik 2010), travelling across ice on Holman Island (Slavik 2010), on the ice near Sachs Harbour (Ashford and Castleden 2001), crossing from the mainland to Victoria Island (Thorpe 2000), in Storis Passage (Ugjulik), on King William Island, and in the Gjoa Haven area in general (Keith and Arqviq 2006). In central coastal BC, 65 distinct food items of Grizzly Bears, including 49 plant species, were identified by MacHutchon et al. These areas represent about 7.1% of the area of occupancy in Canada. Hence, a hunting strategy that causes less than 3% total annual mortality may be appropriate throughout much of Grizzly Bear range in Canada, although factors such as management scale and habitat productivity may affect this number (McCullough 1996). Mean annual recorded (known) human-caused mortalities of Grizzly Bears (animals/year) in Canada from 1990–2010. 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