The list of chemotherapy agents, antibiotics, anti-virals, anesthetics, adhesives, marine genetic products (MGPs) and others being used or developed to treat cancer, leukemia, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, wounds and infections, among others, includes at least 18,000 products derived from 4,800 species. Similar combinations were also reported by Chakravorty et al. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State. 40 minutes, 250 words at least. Sun drying (83.4%) was the main mode used by informants, followed by drying in alcohol and in maize leaves (each 8.3%). 2011;7:13 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-7-13. Folk medicine is the source of primary health care for millions of people throughout the world. Therefore, animals appear to be a little exploited source of drugs for modern medicine compared with plants . We get many medicines from animals which are also used in the treatment of various diseases. Sodjinou et al. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. Guinea pepper (15.4% of remedies), palm derivatives (9.8%), moringa leaves (5.7%) and shea butter (4.1%) were the most commonly used plants in combination with invertebrate-based drugs. Concerning the forms of administration, the most frequently used mode of remedy administration is oral ingestion (64.2%), followed by topical uses (33.6%), visual (1.5%) and nasal (0.7%) applications. Borah MP, Prasad SB. 2). J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. , which observed that in members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes (India), the use of treatments solely based on animals or animal products is rare and that treatments involving animal material frequently contain a plant component as well. Comparative evaluation of shaemagglutination potential of haemolymph from two species of giant African land snails (Archachatina marginata and Achatina achatina). The same trend was observed for the category ‘ophthalmological diseases’ where only one disease was treated by one animal with two use citations . https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBR11.083. 2005;77:33–43 https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652005000100004. Special-use chemicals evolved for defense or aggression, for example to compete for attachment space, prevent overgrowth by encrusting species, deter predators and incapacitate or kill prey; and for communicating information about identity, health and reproductive state to potential mates or others of their own or other species. Laboratory of Applied Entomology, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of Dassa (FAST-Dassa), National University of Sciences, Technologies, Engineering and Mathematics of Abomey (UNSTIM), BP, 14, Dassa-Zoumé, Benin, Laura Estelle Yêyinou Loko, Azize Orobiyi & Joelle Toffa, Medicinal and Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Health Sciences, 01, BP, 188, Cotonou, Benin, Laboratory of Physics and Synthesis Organic Chemistry (LaCOPS), Faculty of Sciences and Techniques (FAST), University of Abomey-Calavi, BP, 4521, Cotonou, Benin, Laboratoire de Physiologie Animale de Signalisation Cellulaire et de Pharmacologie, FAST-Dassa, UNSTIM, BP, 34, Dassa Zoumé, Benin, Laboratoire des maladies infectueuses à transmission vectorielle, Institut Régional de Santé Publique, University of Abomey-Calavi, BP, 384, Ouidah, Benin, You can also search for this author in The highest ICF value (1.0) was cited for diseases of the blood or blood-forming organs. Every part of the tiger, its bones, claws, hides, and teeth have been used in alternative medicine preparations, especially Chinese traditional medicine. More than 100 million animals suffer and die in the U.S. every year in cruel chemical, drug, food, and cosmetics tests as well as in medical training exercises and curiosity-driven medical experiments at universities. These include experiments that subjectively measure the irritation of chemicals in the eyes or on the skin of rabbits (the infamous Draize test), and lethal dose (LD50) experiments that determine toxicity by the dosage of a chemical that kills half of the animals forced to consume, breathe or be injected with that chemical. Alves RRN, Rosa IL, Neto NAL, Voeks R. Animals for the gods: magical and religious faunal use and trade in Brazil. are used for leg, foot and joint problems [4, 16]. Folk medicinal use of fauna in Mapimi, Durango, México. Most of the invertebrate drugs were traditionally collected in nature or imported, mainly from Nigeria. This plant was found to possess anti-microbial , anti-fungal , anti-helmintic , anti-cancer , anti-anaphylactic and anti-inflammatory , cardiovascular and diuretic  activities. However, in this case, the high ICF value reflects the fact that only one species was listed for the treatment of one disease (sickle cell disease), with two use citations, rather than a high cultural importance. 2017;7:409–26 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2017.05.001. 2017;13:39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-017-0167-6. In our study, invertebrates were in the majority used by the Yorùbá-Nago ethnic group for spiritual protection against evil spirits. PubMed Google Scholar. González JA, Amich F, Postigo-Mota S, Vallejo JR. jellyfish, shells of crabs, oysters, conch and other mollusks, pearls and Among them, insects occupied 64.7% of the total invertebrates reported followed by arachnids (8.8%), gastropods (8.8%), clitellata (7.4%), diplopods (7.4%) and crustaceans (2.9%). Similar trends were observed in Brazil, where the community of Queimada city uses more animal-based remedies to treat diseases with unspecific symptoms . in traditional medicine in India are described here. Most invertebrate medicines (67.2%) have no dosage and are taken at will (Table 6). PubMed PubMed Powder occupied 47.8% of the total preparations, followed by decoction (36.9%), maceration (6.9%), raw (5.4%), cooked and infusion (each 1.5%). Written By Dr. Steve Katona, Managing Director, Ocean Health Index. Traditional medicine in Asia and elsewhere frequently uses marine animals, including dried sponges, corals and jellyfish, shells of crabs, oysters, conch and other mollusks, pearls and cuttlefish ‘bones’, sea cucumbers, sea horses and many other marine animals to prepare powders, ointments and decoctions for many ailments. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Alves RRN, Rosa IL. India. Hum Ecol. Three modes of drying invertebrates have been identified in the study area. Alves RRN, Rosa IL. The reported species were distributed among 20 zoological families. Nat Prod Rep. 2010;27:1737–57. Most of the hormonal medicines are obtained from the animal glands : 1) Epinepherin used in the treatment of heart ailments is extracted from the adrenal glands of cats and pigs. 3b), while the Tori ethnic group uses it more for treating diseases of the skin and nervous system. 1: 158-227. Ferreira FS, Brito SV, Ribeiro SC, Saraiva AA, Almeida WO, Alves RR. 3a). Analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Traditional Sustain Dev. The Ouémègbé ethnic group uses invertebrates more to treat diseases of the circulatory system and for pregnancy, childbirth or the puerperium (Fig. Special places with extreme conditions, such as deep-sea thermal vents and arctic regions may also harbor biological surprises, though sampling them is much more difficult and the resulting products may have more applicability for purposes other than human medicine. Oyebola DDO. Traditional African medicine in the treatment of HIV. With the aid of an insect taxonomist at the Biodiversity Resource Center of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA-Benin), some insects were identified at the specific level. Alves RRN. © Sven Zea, www.spongeguide.org.The life-saving sponge, Tectitethya crypta, now known as Cryptotheca crypta. 2016;9:1069–79. J Ethnobiol. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Azontonde AH. In fact, their immunological, antiviral, analgesic, antibacterial, anti-cancer, diuretic, anaesthetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic and immunomodulatory properties are well recognised [16, 34, 35]. 2009;9:17 https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-9-17. 2011;15:179876. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep134. health, including newer techniques that can provide medical benefits with The species which attained the highest use value were Eudrilus eugeniae K. (0.293) and Achatina achatina L. (0.255). Wild animals in ethnozoological practices among the Yorubas of southwestern Nigeria and the implications for biodiversity conservation. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. Throughout history it has been thought to aid with many other maladies including toothache, night terrors, hysteria, and more. PubMed With a total population of 622,372 inhabitants, the religions practiced in this Department are Christianity, Islam and Animist . This factor was calculated according to the formula used by Alves et al. According to a 2012 study out of the University of Buffalo, a particular protein found in spider venom could work as a treatment for muscular dystrophy — an umbrella term for a number of diseases that cause loss of muscle mass and eventual inability to walk, move, or swallow. These invertebrates are directly collected in nature by both traditional healers (76 people) and surveyed households (31). Both basic research and translational and applied research are interconnected. Our results showed that some invertebrates had high fidelity level (100%), which indicates that all of the use reports mentioned the same method for using the animal for treatment for the same diseases . Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for evidence-based pharmaceutical drugs. 2009;5:1–11 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-5-1. Our study revealed that 38 medicinal invertebrates were being used in the study area, indicating very rich ethnomedical knowledge of indigenous people of the Plateau Department. Nigeria. Ajagun EJ, Anyaku EC, Afolayan MP. 2012;40:751–80 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10745-012-9516-1. Article The suffering of animals used in medical research is not contested, although the scale of it often is. 2004;29:40–7. DDS, diseases of digestive system; DRS, diseases of respiratory system; DBB, diseases of the blood or blood-forming organs; DVS, diseases of the visual system; ENM, endocrine, nutritional or metabolic diseases; MBN, mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders; DEM, diseases of the ear or mastoid process; IPC, injury, poisoning or certain other consequences of external causes. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.020. In the modern world, it is no longer necessary to use animals for food, clothing or medicine. , the ailments treated by invertebrate remedies were grouped in different categories according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) used by the World Health Organization (WHO). 2005;1:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-1-5. PubMed Central Long before pure chemicals were manufactured in labs, people used plants for medicine. liaison Assoc. A rich coral reef, Fak-Fak, Pisang Islands, Papua, Indonesia. Figure 3 shows the results of principal component analysis (PCA) made to determine the relationship between categories of diseases treated with invertebrates and ethnic groups. Trade in wild mammalian species for traditional medicine in Ogun State. Edible insects in sustainable food systems; 2018. p. 35–54. built our understanding of how nerves conduct electricity… and horseshoe crabs Some of the animals used for the purpose are goats, sheep, camels, buffaloes (beef), pigs (pork), rabbits, fish, and many more. Except for M. religiosa, which is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species, the other invertebrates sold at the markets of the study area were not listed. The use of invertebrates for magical–religious practices has been also observed in several other countries throughout the world such as Brazil [2, 20, 24], Nigeria , India  and Mexico . People have relied on medicinal products derived from natural sources for millennia, and animals have long been an important part of that repertoire; nearly all cultures, from ancient times to the present, have used animals as a source of medicine. Kuete V, Sandjo LP, Wiench B, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity and modes of action of four Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used to treat cancers: Echinops giganteus, Xylopia aethiopica, Imperata cylindrica and Piper capense. Mutum. The scarcity of invertebrates during dry season was the main constraint for traditional healers (40.4% of responses) and surveyed households (46.2% of responses), while very low demand of certain invertebrates was the most important constraint for medicinal animals merchants (81.8% of responses). Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine. 3. Seabrooks L, Hu L. Insects: an underrepresented resource for the discovery of biologically active natural products. Int J Herb Med. https://doi.org/10.1039/c005319h. Ethnozoological study of medicinal animals on Jeju island. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.11.013. Abiona JA, Akinduti PA, Oyekunle MA, Osinowo OA, Onagbesan AOM. how embryos develop from a single fertilized cell…sharks, skates, lobsters and Where are the best places to look for interesting potential drugs? Alves RRN, Neto NAL, Brooks SE, Albuquerque UP. Biol Conserv. Importance of wild animals and their parts in the culture, religious festivals, and traditional medicine, of Nigeria. According to the traditional healers , the medicine made from tiger parts is believed to cure a range of disorders including toothaches. Invertebrates revealed by the surveyed individuals were collected and stored in labelled boxes for later identification in the laboratory. The discovery and development of new medicines, vaccines and medical devices for people and animals is a long and complex process with a number of stages, many of which involve animal experiments. Veterinary medicine, medical specialty concerned with the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases affecting the health of domestic and wild animals and with the prevention of transmission of animal diseases to people. PubMed Hundreds of thousands and probably millions of species live in the ocean. Mahawar MM, Jaroli DP. 1998;25:85–95. However, a synthetic is widely used. The use of different invertebrate-based remedies for the same ailment allows for adaptation to the availability of the possible animals and suggests that these animals can share similar medicinal properties [50, 51]. All surveyed persons in households were men, with age ranged from 26 to 72 years (43 years in average), of whom 26 people were illiterate. In the study area, the Guinea pepper (Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.  who observed that common ailments encountered in day-to-day life were most treated with animal-derived treatments. Today, there are over 100 active ingredients derived from plants for use as drugs and medicines. Costa-Neto EM. The years of experience in traditional medicine practice of surveyed traditional healers ranged from 4 to 65 years (in average 24 years). For example, similarly to inhabitants of the Yoruba tribe of southwestern Nigeria, A. mellifera is used to treat madness and Archachatina marginata Swainson to treat haemorrhoids . However, the treatment of some diseases by invertebrate-based remedies followed folk logic. medicine in Asia and elsewhere. Insects occupied 64.7% of the total invertebrates listed. 2002;24:1–14. Answer: Survey data both for traditional healers and households included the sociodemographic characteristics of the interviewees, invertebrates used as remedy (local name, parts used, stage of development used, ailments treated, methods of preparation, administrated singly or in combination with other ingredients, use of live or dead, administered dose), invertebrate storage conditions, collection sites, how knowledge was acquired by the interviewees, any taboo associated with the traditional use of each invertebrates and the use of these animals for magico-religious purposes. Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine volume 15, Article number: 66 ( 2019 ) 2013. p. 367–81 many other including! Their valuable knowledge on invertebrate-based remedies comes mainly from forefathers through informal training or verbal discussion similarly invertebrates. Ma, Osinowo OA, Onagbesan AOM antifungal activity of kaurene derivatives of Xylopia aethiopica Western scientific methods if. 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